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U.S. President Donald Trump spoke separately to the leaders of Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi and Qatar on Sunday to discuss his "concerns about the ongoing dispute" between Qatar and its Gulf and Arab neighbors, the White House said.

Muslims in Europe have been the permanent victims of discriminations, especially against the practice of their religion. Entrenched in the minds of many is the fear that Islam would be a religion of war and intolerance. The debate started after the assassination of Theo Van Gogh and the cartoon controversy in Denmark, but it is a common scheme of propaganda of all far-right political parties during their political campaigns. We should therefore come back to the issue of islamophobia, i.e. the fear of Islam as a religion.

Redrawing the map of the Middle East seems not to be an exclusively Republican project in the USA. The Democratic power is doing the same now, the United Kingdom too, and perhaps France as well. Is Barack Obama positively answering to Republican demands, through the channel of Republican Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, to appease their pressures and keep his governance as « bi-partisan » as possible ? Or is he simply imitating their past strategies and becoming himself a neo-Conservative hawk, in order to keep high his alliance with the Saudis and the Qataris, hoping that they do not turn to the Republicans before the next elections ?

It has been two years now that Julian Assange has been living secluded in the Embassy of Equator in London. This Wednesday, the co-founder of WikiLeaks has given a press conference by phone call to ensure that he is cooperating with Edward Snowden and to defend his name against defamation attempts. Julian Assange ensured journalists that WikiLeaks is still alive, even though the website is less active now than it has been in the past.

The right to privacy will considerably suffer from the adoption of emergency legislation that has been proposed by the British government on July 10, 2014. The law would grant British intelligence and law enforcement agencies with access to data about millions of people’s communications. But the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, declared, while releasing a report entitled « The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age », that « rushing through wide-ranging emergency legislation » was « difficult to justify », given the content of the text and the ongoing proceedings in the UK on these issues.

Nick Cumming-Bruce for the New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/28/world/middleeast/syria-conflict.html) reports that public executions have become a « common spectacle » in parts of Syria which Islamic militants control.

The United Nations panel has presented a report on the topic on August 27. Paulo Pinheiro, its chairman, said that the « overall scale of the violations continues to increase regardless of the parties perpetrating them ». He accused paralysis in the UN Security Council to be « responsible for acute harm to victims of this war ». The length of the conflict has stirred hatred and has encouraged warriors on both sides to resort to the most cruel techniques.

The two main French political parties, the PartiSocialiste (PS) and the Union pour unMouvementPopulaire (UMP), have agreed to reduce civil liberties through an anti-terrorism bill, on July 22, 2014. The text will be submitted to the vote on September 18.

The text has been presented as an amelioration of the mechanisms existing since October 2012. The French government claims it is focused on Jihadists departing for Syria and Iraq. But this law proposal is actually a extensive and systematic attack on the principles of individual freedom.

Former CIA head, retired General Michael Hayden, has expressed in front of the cameras of CNN's Jim Sciutto, for « Fareed Zakaria GPS », his fear that ISIS would « sooner rather than later » attack targets in Europe and the USA, going so far as to suggest it would organise attacks of an intensity similar to 9/11. But it seems that such fears are really exaggerated, as the Islamic State is likely to focus on the consolidation of its own structures for the next few years, and not into the organisation of terrorist attacks outside of the Middle East.

Two Human Rights Watch reports have been published, denouncing the recruitment campaigns of Islamists, that have targeted children (http://www.hrw.org/node/126063/) and their use of cluster bombs in Syria (www.hrw.org/news/2014/09/01/syria-evidence-islamic-state-cluster-munition-use). Bashar Al-Assad's regime has also been documented to be massively using cluster bombs.

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The European Institute for International Relations (EIIR) is one of unique establishments to combine both legal and strategic studies in the same frame.

The European Institute for International Relations (EIIR) is an independent, promoting and scientific, center for studies, research