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The world might be heading for an oil supply shortage following a steep drop in investments and a lack of fresh conventional discoveries, Saudi Aramco's chief executive said on Monday.

U.S. President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, a veteran businessman and a former spy, meet in person for the first time on Friday in the most highly anticipated encounter on the sidelines of the G20 summit.

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Airbus urged the German government on Wednesday to ensure domestic firms get a big share of a near 4-billion-euro contract earmarked for the country's next generation of heavy-lift military helicopters.

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Americans will celebrate Independence Day on Tuesday with fireworks, acts of gluttony and escapes to the beach, even for people in New Jersey where legislators brokered a last-minute deal to reopen state parks.

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British factories grew more slowly than expected in June as export orders rose at the weakest pace in five months, according to a survey on Monday that might disappoint Bank of England officials who favor raising interest rates.

The French nuclear programme was forcibly imposed to the country by Pierre Messmer in February 1974, taking advantage of the fact George Pompidou was dying. The French Council of Ministers voted the launch of the « Contrat-Programme 1 », which was very quickly drafted to be voted before the death of the President. Analysts of the industry have also criticized the French decision to develop the pressurized water technology (PWR) instead of the boiling water technology (BWR), a choice probably made because PWRs are more appropriate for the production of military plutonium (because of the facility to discharge the rods and retrieve the plutonium 239 and 241 bred from the fertile uranium 238) even though they are more difficult to build than BWRs. There are four EPRs being built currently, one in France (Flamanville), one in Finland (Olkiluoto) and two in China (Taïshan). Another French EPR is planned in Penly. Another EPR reactor in upstate New York had been programmed, at Nine Mile Point, but it was officially cancelled in Spring 2014. Two EPRs will also be built at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom.

In the Horizon 2020 programme, a facility has been created to allow companies to finance research in shale gas fracturing. This purpose has been widely criticized by environmental NGOs, who say the €113m of the programme contradict EU climate change policy and could be afforded instead by the companies who will benefit from the programme.

Astrid (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is the new nuclear « sun » France intends to build to have access to almost infinite energy while incinerating the most toxic nuclear waste of other nuclear plants. This nuclear reactor is known as a « fast-breeder reactor » : it is able to produce its own plutonium through a process known as « transmutation ». The promise of 2 500 years of nuclear fuel is truly a white elephant for politicians. Fast-breeder reactors like Astrid can also transform toxic nuclear waste (so-called “minor actinids”, i.e. high-level and long-life nuclear waste) into much more innocuous waste. In theory this technology could also be used to incinerate excess plutonium, coming for instance from dismantled nuclear weapons. Astrid is since 2006 a project of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), in parternship with Areva, Electricité de France (EDF), Bouygues, Alstom, etc. In 2010 it already benefited from €650  million in the framework of the “Great Public Loan for Innovative Investment” (Grand Emprunt). In 2012 the estimated calendar was delayed, with a study phase until 2017, and, if construction of the prototype is decided, its commissioning in 2020. Commercial exploitation should start theoretically in 2040. Fast-breeder reactors have been developed since the end of the Second World War (the idea of fast-breeder reactors comes from Enrico Fermi) but it is in the 1990s that the technology has been studied more closely, because of a purported lack of nuclear fuel and of an actual accumulation of nuclear waste. The technology is still extremely frail and represents an absolute threat in spite of all of its ameliorations, as it is shown below.

The question of whether there is a spontaneous order in markets is a founding question in social sciences. It should guide all of our choices regarding public policies, whether we adopt a liberal viewpoint or interventionist policies. It has been debated at least since the Renaissance – one of the earliest modern economic schools is the Salamanca liberal school of economics. Our thesis is that there is never any possibility of a spontaneous order in markets. We will defend it through three kinds of arguments. First, by arguing that liberal economic policies have always failed to rein in the « Leviathan State » which we all fear. Second, we will turn to heterodox economists and their policy learnings. Third, an analysis of economical history will show that liberalising economic markets is the true “road to serfdom”, as Hayek has put it. In this work, we adopt a “dialectical” method. The first part is dedicated to showing the limits of the dominant theory ; the second part is devoted to finding alternatives in existing research ; and the last part applies the findings to the realities of our times, with policy learnings stakeholders can use to better define the common good.

About Us

The European Institute for International Relations (EIIR) is one of unique establishments to combine both legal and strategic studies in the same frame.

The European Institute for International Relations (EIIR) is an independent, promoting and scientific, center for studies, research